Art Movements in Art History - The History of Impressionism
Art Movements > Impressionism > The History of Impressionism
The History of Impressionism *
1855 Degas and Manet are students at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
1858 Monet meets Boudin and paints with him in the country.
1859 Monet meets Pissarro at the Academie Suisse.
1862 Monet, Sisley, Renoir and Bazille meet at the Atelier Gleyre in Paris.
1863 Manet, Pissarro, Jongkind, Guillaumin and Cezanne exhibit at the "Salon des
Refuses". After the scandal over Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe, Manet is considered as the
ringleader of the independent artists.
1864 Gleyre's studio closes. Monet takes his friends to the Forest of Fontainebleau to paint
from nature. He then paints with Boudin and Jongkind at Honfleur.
1865 Monet exhibits Honfleur seascapes at the Salon and Manet shows Olympia there.
Renoir and Sisley paint together in the Forest of Fontainebleau.
1866 Monet meets Manet.
1867 Manet and Courbet set up booths at the Paris World's Fair. All the future
Impressionists, except Morisot and Degas, are rejected by the Salon. The idea of
mounting an independent group exhibition is proposed but does not materialise
because of the lack of funds. Monet paints Women in the Garden and Bazille paints
1868 Manet meets Morisot.
1869 Renoir and Monet work together at Bourgival and produce their versions of La
Grenouillere. Painters and writers meet at the Cafe Guerbois.
1870 Franco-Prussian War. Proclamation of the Third Republic. Bazille killed in action;
Manet, Degas and Renoir serve in the armed forces; Monet and Pissarro escape to
England and Cezanne withdraws to L'Estaque.
1871 Courbet is accused of having dismantled the Vendome Column and is imprisoned.
Monet and Pissarro meet Durand-Ruel in London, paint English landscape, and
discover Turner and Constable. Monet visits Holland; Pissarro returns to France and
finds his studio at Louveciennes ransacked.
1872 Monet settles at Argenteuil, Pissarro settles at Pontoise and Cezanne at nearby Saint-
Quen-1'Aumone. Degas visits New Orleans; Morisot visits Spain.
1873 Degas returns from America and paints dancers in bright colours, Monet paints at
Argenteuil, Pissarro and Cezanne work at Auvers, Cezanne lightens his palette,
Renoir works in Montmartre. Cassatt and Morisot exhibit at the Salon. A Joint-stock
company ofartists is formed with a stated threefold aim:
(1) to hold exhibitions without a jury or system of awards
(2) to promote sales
(3) to publish Eheir 41wn iournal concerned exclusively with the acts
1874 April 15 - May 15: First. Group Exhibition at Nadar's, 35 Boulevard des Capucines: 30
participants and 165 works. Manet, Renoir, Sisley and Caillebotte Join Monet at
Argenteuil. Mature phase in the style of plein air landscape painting. Morisot
marries Eugene Manet.
1875 Disastrous auction sale of works by Monet, Sisley, Renoir and Morisot.
1876 April: Second Croup Exhibition at 11, Rue le Peletier: 20 participants.
1877 April: Third Croup Exhibition at, 6, Rue le Peletier: 18 participants, The name
"Irnpressionist" is adopted by the group for the first time. Second auction of works -
avergae price 169 francs Death of Courbet.
1878 Monet moves to Vetheuil.
1879 April 10 - May 15: Fourth Group Exhibition at 28 Avenue de l'Opera: 15 participants.
Degas opposes the tisc: of the name "Impressionists'' and "Independants" is adopted.
Renoir, Cezanne, Sisley and Morisot abstain but Marie Bracquemond and Mary
Cassatt exhibit. Renoir shows Portrait of Mme Charpentier and her Children at the
1880 April 1-30: Fifth Group Exhibition at 10, Rue des Pyramides: 19 participants. Monet,
Renoir, Sisley and Cezanne abstain; Pissarro, Morisot, Guillaumin, Degas, Gauguin
and friends of Degas exhibit. One-man shows by Manet (April) and Monet (June) at
"La Vie Moderne".
1881 April 2-May 1: Sixth Group Exhibition at 35, Boulevard des Capucines: 14
participants. Caillebotte, Monet, Renoir, Sisley and Cezanne abstain; Pissarro,
Morisot, Cassatt, Guillaumin, Gauguin, Degas and his friends exhibit. Renoir visits
1882 March 1-31: Seventh Group Exhibition organised by Durand-Ruel: 9 participants.
Monet, Renoir, Sisley, Caillebotte, Guillaumin, Morisot, Pissarro, Gauguin exhibit;
Degas and his friends abstain.
1883 One-man shows at Durand-Ruel, February to June, by Boudin, Monet, Renoir,
Pissarro, Sisley. Monet settles at Giverny. Death of Manet.
1884 Founding of the Societe des Independants, at which Seurat exhibits Bathing at
1886 May 15-June 15: Eighth and last Group Show at 1, Rue Lafitte: 17 participants
including Marie Bracquemond, Cassatt, Degas, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Morisot,
Pissarro, Seurat and Signac. Durand-Ruel organises a large Impressionist Exhibition
in New York.
* Drawn from notes compiled by M. Arnold for the University of South Africa